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Title :労働政策の成功要因に関する経済学的考察 : OECD加盟の欧米諸国の経験とわが国への含意
Title alternative :An Economic Analysis of Why Some Labor Market Policies Succeed : Experiences in OECD countries and Implications for Japan
Authors :後藤, 玲子
Authors alternative :GOTOH, Reiko
Issue Date :30-Oct-2004
Abstract :The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the factors behind the success of labor market policies in OECD countries and to consider what employment policies should be adopted in Japan on the basis of this analysis. The reason why OECD countries have adopted the "welfare to work" strategy over the last decade is that the multiplier effect of conventional Keynesian policies is falling away in an age of flexibility. We can not maintain conventional policies as hitherto. However, we must not forget the cost of unemployment. The important thing is to ascertain the long-term effect of policies for employment. For that purpose, it is essential to explicate the macro-micro linkage and to provide microfoundations for macroeconomic policies. It is also useful to relate policies for cyclical unemployment with policies for structural unemployment and to involve the private sector in design and management of labor market policies. A case study on labor market policies in OECD countries suggests that the key factors enhancing labor market performance are as follows: (i) "job matching" -open vacancy display and self-service facilities over the Internet, job-search assistance, and developing vocational classification and training awards; (ii) "employability" -training and job creation for youths, targeting not easy-to-place jobseekers but workers at high unemployment risk, and training for the vocational skills that are in market demanded; (iii) "activation" -relating active labor market programs with passive labor market programs, which are selective and voluntary up to a defined date and then universal and compulsory thereafter, and revision of eligibility criteria; (iv) "decentralization" -co-operation on design and management of labor market programs with local partners, co-ordination of the local labor market based on local partnerships, governance and accountability of decentralization by utilizing information and communication technologies. We will next discuss the implications for employment policy in Japan. First, public work-related expenditure to absorb unemployment in Japan is weighted too much towards social fixed capital formation. The effect of creating productive capacity in social fixed capital stock is falling away, so we must revise the allocation of public expenditure. Second, design and management of labor market policies in Japan should be reformed on the basis of the above analysis of factors leading to the success of labor market policies. Finally, it should be emphasized that decentralization is essential not only to attain "flex-icurity" but also to promote "market democracy". We would like to state that there is also a need for reform in the rule of both the public and private sectors as part of the design and management of employment policies. The reform of implementing multiple partnerships with local actors may evolve the role of government from a position of decision-maker to one of mediator.
Type Local :雑誌掲載論文
Publisher :社会・経済システム学会
URI :http://hdl.handle.net/10109/1564
Citation :社会・経済システム Vol.25 p.153 -167
Appears in Collections:Article in academic journal (College of Humanities)

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